What is Hematology?
Hematology is the study of blood, blood-forming organs, and diseases of the blood. It is often known as “blood science.”
In the medical field, hematology encompasses all forms of hemophilia, leukaemia, lymphoma, and sickle-cell anaemia, among other diseases. Hematology is a medical speciality that focuses on blood illnesses, including the pathophysiology and diagnosis of these diseases, as well as the treatment and prognosis of these diseases.
A hematologist analyses the lymphatic system and bone marrow in order to discover changes in the blood count or platelet count that are not present in the general population. Hematologists are specialists who specialise in the treatment of the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and lymphoid tissue.
Chemical composition of blood
Blood is made up of several components such as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. It is via red blood cells that oxygen is delivered to the lungs and tissues throughout the body. Red blood cells account for around 45 percent of total blood volume. Carbon dioxide is also transported back to the lungs through the mucus membranes of the respiratory tract. In the bone marrow, they are formed into discs, which is how they get their name. The bone marrow’s function is to create white blood cells that aid in the fight against infection. Together with platelets, they account for less than one percent of total blood volume. Platelets are small, colourless particles that cling to one another and interact with clotting proteins to stop or prevent bleeding from occurring. They are also produced by the bone marrow.
Plasma is the liquid component of the bloodstream. 92 percent of its weight is made up of water, which is primarily composed of proteins, minerals, carbs, lipids, hormones, and vitamins.
Subjects of Investigation
In the subject of hematology, hemoglobinopathy, hematological malignancies, anaemia, and bleeding disorders are all common topics of discussion. Hemoglobinopathy is the study of anomalies in globin chains, which are found in the blood. Hemoglobinopathy covers both sickle cell anaemia and thalassemia, as well as other blood disorders (often referred to as erythropoiesis). Hematological malignancies are tumours of the bone marrow, blood, and lymph nodes that are identified and treated in the discipline of hematology (blood cancer). Blood malignancies are classified into three categories: leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. A hematologist, among other things, is responsible for the treatment of arterial thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, and neutropenia.
Oncology in the realm of blood disorders
Experts from a wide range of medical and surgical specialties interact with hematologists, however oncology is the most often seen collaboration. Patients with blood and bone marrow malignancies, such as leukaemia and lymphoma, are cared for by hematologists and oncologists, who specialise in the treatment of these diseases.
An example of a common haematological test is the complete blood count, or CBC. These conditions include anaemia, clotting difficulties, blood cancers, immune system abnormalities, and infections. These conditions may be discovered at a routine visit with this test.
Additional hematological tests include the following:
- A blood chemistry test, often known as a BCT
- In addition, a blood enzyme test is performed.
- Blood tests are used to determine the risk of heart disease.